ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КРИСТАЛЛОВ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ ДЛЯ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ НОВЫХ ЯВЛЕНИЙ И РАЗВИТИЯ УСКОРИТЕЛЬНЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ

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Аннотация

При движении частиц высоких энергий вдоль осей или плоскостей кристалла они испытывают действие протяженного эффективного поля, напряженность которого на порядки превосходит величины, создаваемые любыми стационарными магнитами. Столь сильные поля открывают широкие возможности наблюдения новых явлений, измерения характеристик частиц, управления их пучками, а также генерации и поляризации последних. Многие из этих возможностей были предсказаны белорусскими учеными и наблюдались в ЦЕРН, ФНАЛ, ИФВЭ и других ускорительных центрах. Предложенные эффекты увеличения эффективности захвата частиц в режим каналирования при помощи выреза в кристалле и усиления их отклонения вследствие отражения от различных плоскостей одного кристалла позволяют усилить защиту сверхпроводящих магнитов Большого адронного коллайдера и проектируемого адронного коллайдера Будущего. Значительное усиление процесса излучения и рождения пар в кристаллах может оказывать влияние на функционирование калориметра Компактного мюонного соленоида (CSM) гамма-телескопа «Ферми», а также быть использовано при разработке более эффективных калориметров и гамма- телескопов в будущем. Эффект вращения спина каналированных частиц в изогнутых кристаллах делает возможным измерения магнитных и электрических дипольных моментов короткоживущих очарованных и бьюти-гиперонов, а также наблюдать изменение магнитного момента электрона. 


Об авторах

В. Г. Барышевский
Институт ядерных проблем Белорусского государственного университета
Беларусь

доктор физико-математических наук, профессор, почетный директор, главный научный сотрудник 

ул. Бобруйская, 11, Минск, 220030



В. В. Тихомиров
Институт ядерных проблем Белорусского государственного университета
Беларусь

доктор физико- математических наук, профессор, заведующий лабораторией

лаборатория ядерной оптики и космомикрофизики 

ул. Бобруйская, 11, Минск, 220030



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